Infections with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are not limited to cattle, but may be detected in various species in the mammalian order Artiodactyla. Despite epidemiological evidence of BVD infections in species other than cattle, current knowledge regarding the impact of BVDV infections in species other than cattle, current knowledge regarding the impact of BVDV on heterologous species is incomplete. In heterologous hosts, BVDV infections with clinical signs analogous to those in cattle have been described and included disease of multiple organ systems, most notably the reproductive tract and immune system. Clinical infections may negatively impact the health and well-being of heterologous species, including canelids and captive and free-ranging wildlife. Of additional importance are BVDV infections in small ruminants and swine where difficulties arise in laboratory testing for Border disease virus (BDV) and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), respectively. Pestiviruses are antigenically closely related and their cross-reactivity requires additional efforts in virological testing. In cattle populations, persistently infected animals are considered the main source of BVDV transmission. This phenomenon has also been detected in heterologous species, which could facilitate reservoirs for BVDV that may be of great importance where control programs are in progress. This review summarizes the current epidemiological and clinical knowledge on heterologous BVDV infections and discusses their implications.
Passler, T.; Walz, P.H.