Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, Biologicals, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandwich CT13 9NJ, UK
Several laboratory studies assessed the duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine (Rispoval™4, Pfizer Animal Health) against bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) caused by bovine herpes-virus type-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral-diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV), or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves between 7 weeks and 6 months of age were allocated to treatment and then were injected with two doses of either the vaccine or the placebo 3 weeks apart. Six to 12 months after the second injection, animals were challenged with BHV-1 (n = 16), PI3V (n = 31), BVDV (n = 16), or BRSV (n = 20) and the course of viral infection was monitored by serological, haematological (in the BVDV study only), clinical, and virological means for ≥2 weeks. Infection induced mild clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated rectal temperature in both vaccinated and control animals and was followed by a dramatic rise in neutralising antibodies in all treatment groups. Titres reached higher levels in vaccinated calves than in control calves after challenge with BHV-1, BVDV, or BRSV. On day 3 after PI3V challenge, virus shedding was reduced from 3.64 log10 TCID50 in control animals to 2.59 log10 TCID50 in vaccinated animals. On days 6 and 8 after BRSV challenge, there were fewer vaccinated animals (n = 2/10 and 0/10, respectively) shedding the virus than control animals (n = 8/10 and 3/10, respectively). Moreover, after challenge, the mean duration of virus shedding was reduced from 3.8 days in control animals to 1 day in vaccinated animals in the BVDV study and from 3.4 days in control animals to 1.2 days in vaccinated animals in the BRSV study. The duration of immunity of ≥6 months for PI3V, BHV-1 and BVDV, and 12 months for BRSV, after vaccination with Rispoval™4, was associated mainly with enhanced post-challenge antibody response to all four viruses and reduction of the amount or duration of virus shedding or both.
This article was published in Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 66, A.R. Peters, S.J. Thevasagayam, A. Wiseman and J.S. Salt, Duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory diseases caused by BHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BRSV in experimentally infected calves, 63-77, Copyright Elsevier 2004.