BVD CONSULT

Duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory diseases caused by BHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BRSV in experimentally infected calves

Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, Biologicals, Pfizer Animal Health, Sandwich CT13 9NJ, UK

Abstract

Several laboratory studies assessed the duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine (Rispoval™4, Pfizer Animal Health) against bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) caused by bovine herpes-virus type-1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza type-3 virus (PI3V), bovine viral-diarrhoea virus type 1 (BVDV), or bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves between 7 weeks and 6 months of age were allocated to treatment and then were injected with two doses of either the vaccine or the placebo 3 weeks apart. Six to 12 months after the second injection, animals were challenged with BHV-1 (n = 16), PI3V (n = 31), BVDV (n = 16), or BRSV (n = 20) and the course of viral infection was monitored by serological, haematological (in the BVDV study only), clinical, and virological means for ≥2 weeks. Infection induced mild clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated rectal temperature in both vaccinated and control animals and was followed by a dramatic rise in neutralising antibodies in all treatment groups. Titres reached higher levels in vaccinated calves than in control calves after challenge with BHV-1, BVDV, or BRSV. On day 3 after PI3V challenge, virus shedding was reduced from 3.64 log10 TCID50 in control animals to 2.59 log10 TCID50 in vaccinated animals. On days 6 and 8 after BRSV challenge, there were fewer vaccinated animals (n = 2/10 and 0/10, respectively) shedding the virus than control animals (n = 8/10 and 3/10, respectively). Moreover, after challenge, the mean duration of virus shedding was reduced from 3.8 days in control animals to 1 day in vaccinated animals in the BVDV study and from 3.4 days in control animals to 1.2 days in vaccinated animals in the BRSV study. The duration of immunity of ≥6 months for PI3V, BHV-1 and BVDV, and 12 months for BRSV, after vaccination with Rispoval™4, was associated mainly with enhanced post-challenge antibody response to all four viruses and reduction of the amount or duration of virus shedding or both.

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This article was published in Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 66, A.R. Peters, S.J. Thevasagayam, A. Wiseman and J.S. Salt, Duration of immunity of a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory diseases caused by BHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BRSV in experimentally infected calves, 63-77, Copyright Elsevier 2004.