A province-wide, cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), Neospora caninum (NC), Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) genotypes 1 and 2 (BVDv1 and BVDv2) infection in dairy cattle herds in Alberta was conducted. Among adults, the seroprevalence of MAP, NC, and BLV was 9.1%, 18.5%, and 26.9%, respectively. For MAP, based on a herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows, 58.8% of herds were infected. Herd-level seroprevalence for NC and BLV was 98.7% and 86.7%, respectively, based on a herd-test cutpoint of 1 seropositive cow. Among unvaccinated dairy heifers, the seroprevalence for BVDv1 and BVDv2 infection was 28.4% and 8.9%, respectively, while herd-level infection was 53.4% and 19.7%. Seroprevalence for MAP varied moderately by agroecological region, whereas that for NC, BLV, and BVDv1 and BVDv2 did not. For MAP, aridity and soil pH (correlated features of the region) were also important.
Scott HM, Sorensen O, Wu JTY, Chow EYW, Manninen K, and VanLeeuwen JA. Can Vet J. 2006 October; 47(10): 981–991.